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核桃种质资源果实性状的遗传多样性分析

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龙源期刊网 http://www.qikan.com.cn 核桃种质资源果实性状的遗传多样性分析 作者:陈新 徐丽 张力思 张士刚 魏海蓉 刘庆忠 来源:《安徽农业科学》2017 年第 26 期 摘要[目的]研究核桃果实性状遗传多样性。[方法]以 53 份山东省果树研究所国家核桃种质 资源圃的核桃坚果为研究对象,测定横径、纵径、侧径、干果重、仁重、出仁率、壳厚等主要 数量性状。[结果]53 个核桃家系坚果重为 7.953~20.719 g,果仁重为 4.854~9.866 g,出仁率 为 39.15%~71.57%,横径为 27.725~39.463 mm,纵径为 31.835~48.223 mm,侧径为 31.157~41.435 mm,壳厚为 0.564~1.794 mm。其中,果仁重、干果重、壳厚具有相对较高的 变异系数,分别为 14.19%、18.51%、22.13%。[结论]调查的核桃资源遗传多样性丰富,果仁 重、单果重和壳厚可作为核桃良种选育的重要参考指标。 关键词核桃;果实;性状;遗传多样性 中图分类号 S664.1 文献标识码 A 文章编号 0517-6611(2017)26-0136-02 Genetic Diversity Analysis of Fruit Characters in Germplasm Resources of Juglans regia CHEN Xin, XU Li, ZHANG Lisi, LIU Qingzhong* et al(Shandong Instituite of Pomology, Key Laboratory for Fruit Biotechnology Breeding of Shandong, Taian, Shandong 271000) Abstract[Objective] To study the genetic diversity of Juglans regia fruit. [Method]53 Juglans regia nuts in national Juglans regia Germplasm Resources Garden of Shandong Institute of Pomology were taken as the research object. The main quantitative characters such as diameter, longitudinal diameter, lateral diameter, dry fruit weight, kernel weight, kernel yield and shell thickness were measured. [Result]The weight of 53 Juglans regia nuts was 7.953-20.719 g, the kernel weight was 4.854-9.866 g, the kernel yield was 39.15%-71.57%, the transverse diameter was 27.72539.463 mm, the longitudinal diameter was 31.835-48.223 mm, the side diameter was 31.15741.435 mm, and the shell thickness was 0.564-1.794 mm.Among them, the kernel weight, dry fruit weight and shell thickness have relatively high coefficient of variation at 14.19%, 18.51% and 22.13%, respectively. [Conclusion]The genetic diversity of walnut resources was rich, and the kernel weight, fruit weight and shell thickness can be used as important reference indexes for the selection of Juglans regia varieties. Key wordsJuglans regia;Nut;Characters;Genetic diversity 基金项目科技部科技资源共享服务*台项目(2017-048);农业部种质资源保护与利用项 目(2017NWB009);山东省农业良种工程项目-鲁科农字(2014-96)。 龙源期刊网 http://www.qikan.com.cn 核桃又称胡桃,系胡桃科(Juglandaceae)胡桃属(Juglans)植物,是世界上重要的坚果 树种之一,也是我国重要的栽培经济树种。我国是核桃生产大国,但是我国核桃的品种化栽培 起步较晚,选育优质、高产、适应性强的品种仍是我国核桃产业发展面临的迫切问题。核桃主 要性状遗传规律的研究是选育新品种的基础。目前国内外核桃育种工作者在分析种质资源遗传 多样性发掘和创新育种材料等方面做了大量工作,取得了显著成果[1-4]。但核桃主要性状的遗 传规律研究相对滞后影响了育种工作的顺利实施。因此,对核桃性状遗传规律的研究在核桃的 育种中具有重要意义。笔者以山东省果树研究所国家种质资源圃的核桃坚果为研究对象,研究 了果实性状的遗传多样性。 1 材料与方法 1.1 供试材料 选取山东省果树研究所国家果树种质核桃资源圃的 53 份核桃样本进行研究,主要为*年 来国内外育成的品种和资源考察过程中收集的农家品系。 1.2 试验方法 每份材料取成熟坚果 10 个,风干,进行各项指标的测定。测定干果横径(mm)、纵径 (mm)、侧径(mm)、单果重(g)、果仁重(g)、壳



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